Thứ Ba, 1 tháng 12, 2020

Quản lý ZFS File System trong solarus

1. Mục đích

Ứng dụng chạy zfs dùng cache từ RAM --> Ứng dụng chạy nhanh

 

2. Check

-- Thông tin của 1 mount point

root@app-2 # zpool status u03

  pool: u03

state: ONLINE

scrub: none requested

config:

 

        NAME                                     STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

        u03                                      ONLINE   0     0 0

          c4t60060E80056F530000006F5300000560d0  ONLINE   0     0 0

 

errors: No known data errors

 

-- Check phân vùng đã được mount: zpool list, zfs list

 

root@sol10 # zfs list

NAME   USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT

sms 412G   509G   411G  /sms

 

root@sol10 # zpool list

NAME   SIZE  ALLOC   FREE CAP  HEALTH  ALTROOT

sms 936G   412G   524G 44%  ONLINE  -

 

 

3. TT Mount phân vùng mới, Check dung lượng SAN

Scan phân vùng mới

luxadm -e port

luxadm -e forcelip /devices/pci@2,600000/SUNW,emlxs@0/fp@0,0:devctl

(luxadm -e forcelip name_of_hba)

 

devfsadm -Cv

echo |format

Format phân vùng mới, thực hiện trên 1 node

format  -e -->

 

 

Tạo file system mới

# zpool create pool_name c1t0d0 c1t1d0 # Raid 0

# zpool create pool_name mirror c1d0 c2d0 mirror c3d0 c4d0 # Raid 1-0

# zpool create tank raidz c1t0d0 c2t0d0 c3t0d0 c4t0d0 /dev/dsk/c5t0d0 #RAID-Z

 

From <https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19253-01/819-5461/gaynr/index.html>

Creating a ZFS pool

We can create a ZFS pool using different devices as:

a. using whole disks

b. using disk slices

c. using files

a. Using whole disks

# echo | format

Searching for disks...done

AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS:

    0. c1t0d0

          /pci@0,0/pci15ad,1976@10/sd@0,0

    1. c1t1d0 <VMware,-VMware Virtual S-1.0-1.00GB>

          /pci@0,0/pci15ad,1976@10/sd@1,0

    2. c1t2d0

          /pci@0,0/pci15ad,1976@10/sd@2,0

    3. c1t3d0

          /pci@0,0/pci15ad,1976@10/sd@3,0

    4. c1t4d0

          /pci@0,0/pci15ad,1976@10/sd@4,0

Specify disk (enter its number): Specify disk (enter its number):

I will not be using the OS disk (disk0).

# zpool create geekpool  c1t1d0

# zpool list

NAME   SIZE  ALLOC   FREE CAP  HEALTH  ALTROOT

geekpool  1008M  78.5K  1008M 0%  ONLINE  -

To destroy the pool :

# zpool destroy geekpool

# zpool list

no pools available

b. Using disk slices

Now we will create a disk slice on disk c1t1d0 as c1t1d0s0 of size 512 MB.

# zpool create geekpool c1t1d0s0

# zpool list

NAME   SIZE  ALLOC   FREE CAP  HEALTH  ALTROOT

geekpool   504M  78.5K   504M 0%  ONLINE  -

c. Using files

We can also create a zpool with files. Make sure you give an absolute path while creating a zpool

# mkfile 100m file1

# zpool create geekpool /file1

# zpool list

NAME   SIZE  ALLOC   FREE CAP  HEALTH  ALTROOT

geekpool  95.5M   115K  95.4M 0%  ONLINE  -

Creating pools with Different RAID levels

Now we can create a zfs pool with different RAID levels:

1. Dynamic strip – Its a very basic pool which can be created with a single disk or a concatenation of disk. We have already seen zpool creation using a single disk in the example of creating zpool with disks. Lets see how we can create concatenated zfs pool.

# zpool create geekpool c1t1d0 c1t2d0

# zpool list

NAME   SIZE  ALLOC   FREE CAP  HEALTH  ALTROOT

geekpool  1.97G 80K  1.97G 0%  ONLINE  -

# zpool status

  pool: geekpool

 state: ONLINE

 scan: none requested

config:

NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

     geekpool ONLINE   0     0 0

       c1t1d0 ONLINE   0     0 0

       c1t2d0 ONLINE   0     0 0

errors: No known data errors

This configuration does not provide any redundancy. Hence any disk failure will result in a data loss. Also note that once a disk is added in this fashion to a zfs pool may not be removed from the pool again. Only way to free the disk is to destroy entire pool. This happens due to the dynamic striping nature of the pool which uses both disk to store the data.

2. Mirrored pool

a. 2 way mirror

A mirrored pool provides you the redundancy which enables us to store multiple copies of data on different disks. Here you can also detach a disk from the pool as the data will be available on the another disks.

# zpool create geekpool mirror c1t1d0 c1t2d0

# zpool list

NAME   SIZE  ALLOC   FREE CAP  HEALTH  ALTROOT

geekpool  1008M  78.5K  1008M 0%  ONLINE  -

# zpool status

  pool: geekpool

 state: ONLINE

 scan: none requested

config:

NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

     geekpool ONLINE   0     0 0

       mirror-0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t1d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t2d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

errors: No known data errors

b. 3 way mirror

# zpool destroy geekpool

# zpool create geekpool mirror c1t1d0 c1t2d0 c1t3d0

# zpool list

NAME   SIZE  ALLOC   FREE CAP  HEALTH  ALTROOT

geekpool  1008M  78.5K  1008M 0%  ONLINE  -

# zpool status

  pool: geekpool

 state: ONLINE

 scan: none requested

config:

NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

     geekpool ONLINE   0     0 0

       mirror-0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t1d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t2d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t3d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

errors: No known data errors

2. RAID-Z pools

Now we can also have a pool similar to a RAID-5 configuration called as RAID-Z. RAID-Z are of 3 types raidz1 (single parity) and raidz2 (double parity) and rzidz3 (triple parity). Lets us see how we can configure each type.

Minimum disk requirements for each type

Minimum disks required for each type of RAID-Z

1. raidz1 – 2 disks

2. raidz2 – 3 disks

3. raidz3 – 4 disks

a. raidz1

# zpool create geekpool raidz c1t1d0 c1t2d0 c1t3d0

# zpool list

NAME   SIZE  ALLOC   FREE CAP  HEALTH  ALTROOT

geekpool  2.95G   166K  2.95G 0%  ONLINE  -

# zpool status

  pool: geekpool

 state: ONLINE

 scan: none requested

config:

NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

     geekpool ONLINE   0     0 0

       raidz1-0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t1d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t2d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t3d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

errors: No known data errors

b. raidz2

#zpool create geekpool raidz2 c1t1d0 c1t2d0 c1t3d0

#zpool list

NAME   SIZE  ALLOC   FREE CAP  HEALTH  ALTROOT

geekpool  2.95G   186K  2.95G 0%  ONLINE  -

#zpool status

  pool: geekpool

 state: ONLINE

 scan: none requested

config:

NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

     geekpool ONLINE   0     0 0

       raidz2-0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t1d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t2d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t3d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

errors: No known data errors

c. raidz3

# zpool create geekpool raidz3 c1t1d0 c1t2d0 c1t3d0 c1t4d0

# zfs list

NAME   USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT

geekpool 61K   976M    31K  /geekpool

# zpool status

  pool: geekpool

 state: ONLINE

 scan: none requested

config:

NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

     geekpool ONLINE   0     0 0

       raidz3-0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t1d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t2d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t3d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t4d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

errors: No known data errors

Adding spare device to zpool

By adding a spare device to a zfs pool the failed disks is automatically replaced by the space device and administrator can replace the failed diks ata later point in time. We can aslo share the spare device among multiple zfs pools.

# zpool add geekpool spare c1t3d0

# zpool status

  pool: geekpool

 state: ONLINE

 scan: none requested

config:

NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

     geekpool ONLINE   0     0 0

       mirror-0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t1d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

         c1t2d0  ONLINE       0 0 0

     spares

       c1t3d0 AVAIL

errors: No known data errors

Make sure you turn on the autoreplace feature (zfs attribute) on the geekpool

# zpool autoreplace=on mpool

Dry run on zpool creation

You can do a dry run and test the result of a pool creation before actually creating it.

# zpool create -n geekpool raidz2 c1t1d0 c1t2d0 c1t3d0

would create 'geekpool' with the following layout:

geekpool

       raidz2

         c1t1d0

         c1t2d0

         c1t3d0

Importing and exporting Pools

You may need to migrate the zfs pools between systems. ZFS makes this possible by exporting a pool from one system and importing it to another system.

a. Exporting a ZFS pool

To import a pool you must explicitly export a pool first from the source system. Exporting a pool, writes all the unwritten data to pool and remove all the information of the pool from the source system.

# zpool export geekpool

# zpool list

no pools available

In a case where you have some file systems mounted, you can force the export

# zpool export -f geekpool

b. Importing a ZFS pool

Now we can import the exported pool. To know which pools can be imported, run import command without any options.

# zpool import

  pool: geekpool

id: 940735588853575716

 state: ONLINE

action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier.

config:

geekpool ONLINE

       raidz3-0  ONLINE

         c1t1d0  ONLINE

         c1t2d0  ONLINE

         c1t3d0  ONLINE

         c1t4d0  ONLINE

As you can see in the output each pool has a unique ID, which comes handy when you have multiple pools with same names. In that case a pool can be imported using the pool ID.

# zpool import 940735588853575716

Importing Pools with files

By default import command searches /dev/dsk for pool devices. So to see pools that are importable with files as their devices we can use :

# zpool import -d /

  pool: geekfilepool

id: 8874031618221759977

 state: ONLINE

action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier.

config:

geekfilepool  ONLINE

       //file1   ONLINE

       //file2   ONLINE

Okay all said and done, Now we can import the pool we want :

# zpool import geekpool

# zpool import -d / geekfilepool

Similar to export we can force a pool import

# zpool import -f geekpool

Creating a ZFS file system

The best part about zfs is that oracle(or should I say Sun) has kept the commands for it pretty easy to understand and remember. To create a file system fs1 in an existing zfs pool geekpool:

# zfs create geekpool/fs1

# zfs list

NAME       USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT

geekpool   131K   976M    31K  /geekpool

geekpool/fs1 31K   976M    31K  /geekpool/fs1

Now by default when you create a filesystem into a pool, it can take up all the space in the pool. So too limit the usage of file system we define reservation and quota. Let us consider an example to understand quota and reservation.

Suppose we assign quota = 500 MB and reservation = 200 MB to the file system fs1. We also create a new file system fs2 without any quota and reservation. So now for fs1 200 MB is reserved out of 1GB (pool size) , which no other file system can have it. It can also take upto 500 MB (quota) out of the pool , but if its is free. So fs2 has right to take up upto 800 MB (1000 MB – 200 MB) of pool space.

So if you don’t want the space of a file system to be taken up by other file system define reservation for it.

One more thing, reservation can’t be greater than quota if it is already defined. On ther other hand when you do a zfs list , you would be able to see the available space for the file system equal to the quota defined for it (if space not occupied by other file systems) and not the reservation as expected.

To set servation and quota on fs1 as stated above:

# zfs set quota=500m geekpool/fs1

# zfs set reservation=200m geekpool/fs1

# zfs list

NAME       USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT

geekpool   200M   776M    32K  /geekpool

geekpool/fs1 31K   500M    31K  /geekpool/fs1

To set mount point for the file system

By default a mount point (/poolname/fs_name) will be created for the file system if you don’t specify. In our case it was /geekpool/fs1. Also you do not have to have an entry of the mount point in /etc/vfstab as it is stored internally in the metadata of zfs pool and mounted automatically when system boots up. If you want to change the mount point :

# zfs set mountpoint=/test geekpool/fs1

# df -h |grep /test

geekpool/fs1       500M 31K   500M 1% /test

Other important attributes

You may also change some other important attributes like compression, sharenfs etc.. Also we can specify attributes while creating the file system itself.

# zfs create -o mountpoint=/test geekpool/fs1

 

From <https://www.thegeekdiary.com/zfs-tutorials-creating-zfs-pools-and-file-systems/>

Mount phân vùng trên máy chủ

# mkdir /u02

# mount /u02

 

    1. Thêm 2 ổ đĩa, và tạo phân vùng ZFS mirror dung lượng sau khi tạo: 2GB, mount vào thư mục /data/binhtv ,sau đó xóa 1 disk

  • # Kiểm tra disk được phân

    root@solaris:~# echo | format

    Searching for disks...done

     

     

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS:

        0. c2t0d0 <VMware,-VMware Virtual S-1.0-30.00GB>

              /pci@0,0/pci15ad,1976@10/sd@0,0

        1. c2t1d0 <VMware,-VMware Virtual S-1.0 cyl 1022 alt 2 hd 128 sec 32>

              /pci@0,0/pci15ad,1976@10/sd@1,0

        2. c2t2d0 <VMware,-VMware Virtual S-1.0 cyl 1022 alt 2 hd 128 sec 32>

              /pci@0,0/pci15ad,1976@10/sd@2,0

    Specify disk (enter its number): Specify disk (enter its number):

    root@solaris:~# zpool status

      pool: rpool

     state: ONLINE

      scan: none requested

    config:

     

         NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

         rpool   ONLINE   0     0 0

              c2t0d0s1  ONLINE   0     0 0

     

    errors: No known data errors

    #Tạo pool test là mirror của 2 đĩa 2G

    root@solaris:~# zpool create test mirror c2t1d0 c2t2d0

    # Tạo mount point /data/binhtv trên pool test

    root@solaris:~# zfs set mountpoint=/data/binhtv test

    root@solaris:~# df -h

    Filesystem             Size   Used  Available Capacity  Mounted on

    rpool/ROOT/solaris      29G   4.8G    22G 18%    /

    /devices                 0K 0K     0K 0%    /devices

    /dev                     0K 0K     0K 0%    /dev

    ctfs                     0K 0K     0K 0%    /system/contract

    proc                 0K 0K     0K 0%    /proc

    mnttab               0K 0K     0K 0%    /etc/mnttab

    swap                   1.4G   1.6M   1.4G 1%    /system/volatile

    objfs                    0K 0K     0K 0%    /system/object

    sharefs                  0K 0K     0K 0%    /etc/dfs/sharetab

    /usr/lib/libc/libc_hwcap1.so.1

                            26G   4.8G    22G 18%    /lib/libc.so.1

    fd                       0K 0K     0K 0%    /dev/fd

    rpool/ROOT/solaris/var

                            29G   291M    22G 2%    /var

    swap                   1.5G   128M   1.4G 9%    /tmp

    rpool/VARSHARE          29G 49K    22G 1%    /var/share

    rpool/export            29G 32K    22G 1%    /export

    rpool/export/home       29G 32K    22G 1%    /export/home

    rpool/export/home/chung

                            29G   802K    22G 1%    /export/home/chung

    rpool                   29G   4.8M    22G 1%    /rpool

    rpool/VARSHARE/zones    29G 31K    22G 1%    /system/zones

    rpool/VARSHARE/pkg      29G 32K    22G 1%    /var/share/pkg

    rpool/VARSHARE/pkg/repositories

                            29G 31K    22G 1%    /var/share/pkg/repositories

    /dev/dsk/c1t0d0s2      1.1G   1.1G     0K   100% /media/Oracle_Solaris-11_3-Live-X86

    test               2.0G 31K       2.0G 1% /data/tctk

    root@solaris:~# zpool status

      pool: rpool

     state: ONLINE

      scan: none requested

    config:

     

         NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

         rpool   ONLINE   0     0 0

              c2t0d0s1  ONLINE   0     0 0

     

    errors: No known data errors

     

      pool: test

     state: ONLINE

      scan: none requested

    config:

     

         NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

         test    ONLINE   0     0 0

              mirror-0  ONLINE   0     0 0

                c2t1d0  ONLINE   0     0 0

                c2t2d0  ONLINE   0     0 0

     

    errors: No known data errors

    # rút ra 1 ổ đĩa của pool test

    root@solaris:~# zpool detach test c2t1d0

    root@solaris:~# zpool status

      pool: rpool

     state: ONLINE

      scan: none requested

    config:

     

         NAME    STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

         rpool   ONLINE   0     0 0

              c2t0d0s1  ONLINE   0     0 0

     

    errors: No known data errors

     

      pool: test

     state: ONLINE

      scan: none requested

    config:

     

         NAME  STATE READ WRITE CKSUM

         test  ONLINE   0     0 0

              c2t2d0  ONLINE   0     0 0

     

    1. Tạo user : ttc , với quyền đọc, ghi, home folder là thư mục /data/tctk

Check

    • Lệnh format

  •  

           4. c4t60060E80056F530000006F5300000560d0 <HITACHI-OPEN-V  -SUN-6008-805.21GB>

              /scsi_vhci/ssd@g60060e80056f530000006f5300000560

     

    • Kiểm tra đủ hai đường kết nối

 

# luxadm display /dev/rdsk/c4t60060E80056F530000006F5300000560d0s2

 

DEVICE PROPERTIES for disk: /dev/rdsk/c4t60060E80056F530000006F5300000560d0s2

  Vendor:               HITACHI

  Product ID:           OPEN-V  -SUN

  Revision:             6008

  Serial Num:       50 06F530560

  Unformatted capacity: 824536.500 MBytes

  Write Cache:      Enabled

  Read Cache:           Enabled

    Minimum prefetch:   0x0

    Maximum prefetch:   0x0

  Device Type:      Disk device

  Path(s):

 

  /dev/rdsk/c4t60060E80056F530000006F5300000560d0s2

  /devices/scsi_vhci/ssd@g60060e80056f530000006f5300000560:c,raw

   Controller           /devices/pci@9,600000/SUNW,emlxs@1,1/fp@0,0

    Device Address              50060e80056f5372,0

    Host controller port WWN 10000000c96dd761

    Class                       primary

    State                       ONLINE

   Controller           /devices/pci@9,600000/SUNW,emlxs@1/fp@0,0

    Device Address              50060e80056f5362,0

    Host controller port WWN 10000000c96dd762

    Class                       primary

    State                       ONLINE

How to Add Swap Space in an Oracle Solaris ZFS Root Environment

    1. Become an administrator.
      For more information, see How to Use Your Assigned Administrative Rights in Oracle Solaris Administration: Security Services.

    2. Identify the current swap volume.
      A swap volume cannot be removed if it is in use. You can tell if the current swap volume is in use by comparing the blocks identified in the blocks column and blocks identified in the free column. If the blocks in the two columns are equal, the swap area is not busy. For example:
      # swap -l
      swapfile                 dev  swaplo   blocks   free
      /dev/zvol/dsk/rpool/swap 256,1  16 1058800 1058800

    3. Select one of the following to resize the swap volume.

    4. If the current swap area is not in use, you can resize the size of the current swap volume.
      For example:
      # zfs get volsize rpool/swap
      NAME    PROPERTY  VALUE SOURCE
      rpool/swap  volsize   517M -
      # zfs set volsize=2g rpool/swap
      # zfs get volsize rpool/swap
      NAME    PROPERTY  VALUE SOURCE
      rpool/swap  volsize   2G   -

    5. If the current swap area is in use, you can add another swap volume.
      For example:
      # zfs create -V 2G rpool/swap2

    6. Activate the second swap volume.
      For example:
      # swap -a /dev/zvol/dsk/rpool/swap2
      # swap -l
      swapfile                  dev  swaplo   blocks   free
      /dev/zvol/dsk/rpool/swap  256,1  16 1058800 1058800
      /dev/zvol/dsk/rpool/swap2 256,3  16 4194288 4194288

 

From <https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E23824_01/html/821-1459/gizfl.html>

Hay dùng

  • ZFS Cheat Sheet:
    # Analysis
    zpool list         # List pools
    zpool status -v    # Tree like summary of all disks
    zpool iostat 1     # iostat for all ZFS pools
    zpool history      # Show recent commands

    # Handling properties
    zfs get all z0
    zfs get all z0/data
    zfs set sharenfs=on z0/data
    zfs set sharesmb=on z0/data
    zfs set compression=on z0/data

    # Mounting
    zfs mount           # List all ZFS mount points
    zfs set mountpoint=/export/data z0/data
    zfs mount /export/data
    zfs unmount /export/data

    # NFS Shares
    zfs set sharenfs=on z1/backup/mydata     # Enable as NFS share
    zfs get sharenfs z1/backup/mydata        # List share options
    zfs sharenfs="<options>" z1/backup/mydata # Overwrite share options

    # Create and load snapshots
    zfs snapshot z0/data@backup-20120601
    zfs rollback z0/data@backup-20120601

  • Loopback mounting
    lofiadm -a <some file>
    mount -F <fstype> -o ro /dev/lofi/1 /mnt
    umount /mnt
    lofiadm -d /dev/lofi/1

 

From <https://lzone.de/cheat-sheet/Solaris>

 

 

4. Tunning ZFS (phải restart lại server)

 

root@app-2 # tail -f /etc/system

*   To set a variable named 'debug' in the module named 'test_module'

*

*               set test_module:debug = 0x13

 

set md:mirrored_root_flag = 1

 

* Begin MDD root info (do not edit)

rootdev:/pseudo/md@0:0,10,blk

* End MDD root info (do not edit)

set zfs:zfs_arc_max=8589934592

-- Boot lại hệ thống (init 6)

5. Add thêm đĩa

zpool attach gprs c6t60060E8004A53B000000A53B00000160d0 c6t6005076307FFD2BD0000000000000120d0

 

6. off tạm ổ khỏi rpool

zpool offline rpool c0t1d0s0


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